Today we will run through one way of estimating the intrinsic value of Energy Fuels Inc. (TSE:EFR) by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to today's value. We will take advantage of the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model for this purpose. Models like these may appear beyond the comprehension of a lay person, but they're fairly easy to follow.
Remember though, that there are many ways to estimate a company's value, and a DCF is just one method. If you still have some burning questions about this type of valuation, take a look at the Simply Wall St analysis model.
See our latest analysis for Energy Fuels
The model
We use what is known as a 2stage model, which simply means we have two different periods of growth rates for the company's cash flows. Generally the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth phase. To begin with, we have to get estimates of the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.
Generally we assume that a dollar today is more valuable than a dollar in the future, so we need to discount the sum of these future cash flows to arrive at a present value estimate:
10year free cash flow (FCF) forecast
2022 
2023 
2024 
2025 
2026 
2027 
2028 
2029 
2030 
2031 

Levered FCF ($, Millions) 
US$10.4m 
US$36.5m 
US$44.4m 
US$42.3m 
US$41.1m 
US$40.6m 
US$40.3m 
US$40.4m 
US$40.6m 
US$40.9m 
Growth Rate Estimate Source 
Analyst x3 
Analyst x1 
Analyst x1 
Analyst x1 
Est @ 2.72% 
Est @ 1.44% 
Est @ 0.55% 
Est @ 0.07% 
Est @ 0.51% 
Est @ 0.82% 
Present Value ($, Millions) Discounted @ 7.2% 
US$9.7 
US$31.8 
US$36.1 
US$32.0 
US$29.1 
US$26.7 
US$24.8 
US$23.1 
US$21.7 
US$20.4 
("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10year Cash Flow (PVCF) = US$255m
After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the initial 10year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country's GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5year average of the 10year government bond yield (1.5%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10year 'growth' period, we discount future cash flows to today's value, using a cost of equity of 7.2%.
Terminal Value (TV)= FCF_{2031} × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = US$41m× (1 + 1.5%) ÷ (7.2%– 1.5%) = US$731m
Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)^{10}= US$731m÷ ( 1 + 7.2%)^{10}= US$365m
The total value is the sum of cash flows for the next ten years plus the discounted terminal value, which results in the Total Equity Value, which in this case is US$620m. In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of CA$5.9, the company appears around fair value at the time of writing. Valuations are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope – move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.
Important assumptions
We would point out that the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate and of course the actual cash flows. You don't have to agree with these inputs, I recommend redoing the calculations yourself and playing with them. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Energy Fuels as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 7.2%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.203. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.
Looking Ahead:
Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it shouldn't be the only metric you look at when researching a company. DCF models are not the beall and endall of investment valuation. Rather it should be seen as a guide to "what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?" For instance, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically alter the overall result. For Energy Fuels, we've put together three fundamental aspects you should assess:

Risks: For example, we've discovered 5 warning signs for Energy Fuels that you should be aware of before investing here.

Future Earnings: How does EFR's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.

Other High Quality Alternatives: Do you like a good allrounder? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!
PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every Canadian stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.
This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you longterm focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest pricesensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.
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